S.I Turchenko has started his professional career in 1960 as a student in the East-Sayan party of the Laboratory of Precambrian geology of USSR Academy of Sciences. After graduation from the department of mineralogy (Leningrad State University), S.I. Turchenko worked in Omsukchan geological expedition of the North-East Geological Survey (1962-1965). He was postgraduate student in IPGG (1965-1968) and worked as technician and then as scientific researcher after defence of his dissertation «Connection of sulfide ores with metamorphic evolution of Northern Karelia» (1970).
The main scientific works of S.I. Turchenko in the field of Precambrian metallogeny fall into three periods: 1966-1978 and from 1985 to the present time (as the IPGG staff member), and 1979-1985 (as a chief scientist in VNIIOkeangeologia). He took part in the construction of the "Atlas of the metallogenic zoning of the Precambrian deposits of the World" (AMZDW), adopted by the UNESCO Commission for the Geological Map of the World. The actual materials were collected and processed during field research in Karelia and the Kola Peninsula, in Finland, in the Eastern Transbaikal and Northern Pribaikalye, Pamir-Alai and Zeravshan structural zones of Central Asia, on the Spitsbergen archipelago and Western Antarctica. Generalizations on the Precambrian metallogeny of various regions of the World were carried out using a computer database of metallogenic data compiled for AMZDW. Petrological and isotope-geochemical studies of ultrabasite-basite magmatism and associated sulfide Cu-Ni and platinum mineralization in riftogenic structures, as well as geological, metamorphic, and structural studies of the regions where pyrite-polymetallic, copper-pyrite mineralization and non-metallic raw materials are distributed, S.I. Turchenko has used for metallogenic analysis of the Early Proterozoic orogenic belts. The petrological, geochemical and geochronological researches of S.I. Turchenko are based on a comprehensive investigation of the geochemistry of rare and rare-earth elements combined with data on Nd, Sm and Pb isotopes, and on the application of U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronological methods.
As a result of petrological, isotopic, geochemical and structural studies, the complex polygenic-polychronic genesis of sulphide-nickel and platinum mineralization in ore-bearing structures of the Baltic Shield and other Precambrian regions has been proved. S.I Turchenko has defeated his doctoral thesis "Metallogeny and tectonics of the Early Proterozoic" in 2003. He combined methods of structural interpretation of space images and analysis of geological and geophysical materials and demonstrated relationship of ore-bearing Precambrian structures with typical geodynamic settings. He formulated petrological, isotope-geochemical, structural and search criteria for the low-sulfide type platinum mineralization in riftogenic structures and proposed the model of their formation. Computer processing of such materials and assessment with expert system enabled the prediction of ore regions and nodes.